They also soon advocated the enemy’s carriers were to be main targets of naval air power. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_aircraft_of_the_Japanese_Navy She was the world’s first dkc landng ship, able to rapidly launch landing craft with stern and side gates. The early completion of the Kaga and Akagi, in 1927-28 was assorted yet of many experimentations in launching and recovering planes on separate decks for example. They were commissioned in May 1942 (Unyo) and November 1942 (Chuyo). Each “division” had two carriers, each with its own hikōtai (aircraft/aviation unit). Chuyo was previously sunk by USS Sailfish in November 1943. 111, the third unit of the unfinished Yamato class, due to unsufficient reserves. Built from a “cruiser” hull, long and relatively narrow, but to maximize the capacity of aircraft, she received a double hangar and a considerable armament for her size, making her higher than usual. -Nakajima C3N (1936) experimental recce monoplane with fixed undercarriage -Nakajima L1N (1936) main transport monoplane twin engine, 351 built –Mitsubishi L4M (1939) main twin-engine transport plane, 406 built –Nakajima/Showa L2D (1939) large navy transport plane codenamed “Tabby”, DC-3 copy. Like the legion Condor over Spain for Luftwaffe’s future officers, combat over China gave considerable experience and confidence to IJN pilots. This aircraft carrier never completed was based on a cruiser hull of a modified mogami class, converted after launch in May 1943. She had a small command bridge and a tripod mast, removed in 1923 to achieve a “flush-deck”, kept since. She then participated in June 1942 in the Battle of Midway. A few minutes after this attack, Soryu was no more than a huge fire and sank at the end of the day, as most survivors evacuated. Displacement: 11,262 t. standard -14 200 t. Full Load Dimensions: 204.8 m long, 18.2 m wide, 6.6 m draft Machinery: 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 4 boilers, 52,000 hp. In this momentous operation, Hiryu teamed with Nagumo’s (reduced) Kido Butai with Kaga, Akagi and Soryu. Top speed: 28.3 knots Armor: Decks 265, belt 250 Armament: 10 x 203, 16 x 100, 30 x 25 mm AA, 90 aircraft Crew: 2,016. Their operational career was quite rich, since after Pearl Harbor, these two ships were were engaged during the battle of the Coral Sea, Shokaku being badly damaged in May 1942, then again in October during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, and ultimately torpedoed and sunk by USS Cavalla during the Battle of the Philippines on June 19, 1944. However due to their planes short range the hierarchy was still thinking in terms of observation for the fleet. Although faster than Kaga, she had a much lower armor. Both Chitose and Chiyoda were sunk at the battle of Cape Engano on 25 October 1944. These vessels were classed as auxiliaries until31 August 1942, when they were reclassified as warships. This emerging concept of a mass pre-emptive aerial attack had the consequence of shifting the main battle fleet attention to battles over the horizon and naval games tactical and strategic plays showed this over time. The other novelty was a larger offset bridge and an integrated tilted funnel, echoing what was done among the allies. These save the honor of the combined fleet as her air group managed to destroy USS Yorktown, the only major American loss of the battle. The Imperial Japanese Navy was a pioneer in naval aviation, having commissioned the world's first built-from-the-keel-up carrier, the Hosho. Historically the Imperial Japanese Navy placed a heavy emphasis on aircraft carriers. From 27 September she made 25 missions from the Homeland and back with the fleet. Seizing the island of Midway, was a vital step, an atoll having an obvious strategic position in the Pacific, a milestone between the US and Japanese coast and an US air base and transit base for Pan American airways. The 1918 naval expansion program helped creating a true air group and dedicated naval air station at Sasebo. Top speed: 22 knots Armament: 8 x 127 AA, 30 x 25 mm AA, 33 aircraft Crew: 942, IJN Ibuki in completion in Kure, August 1945. She participated from 1932 to the war in China, with E1Y3 floatplanes. Their devices will go to Yorktown. In 1941, the need for new aircraft carriers meant that she was sent in drydock for conversion into an aircraft carrier. The Hosho was rather fast, enough to follow the squadron, and her modest dimensions remained exploitable by the small planes of the time. The navy’s first seaplaned were Glenn Curtiss models and two Maurice Farman. They also confirmed the SMS Emden was absent, passed to British intelligence. As the area of operation stretched out fast, the 1st air fleet was thinned out. IJN Kumano Maru was completed in March 1945 but saw little service, as repatriation ship after the war, and Tokitsu Maru was still incomplete, and was rebuilt after the war as a whaling ship. A 3D CG Animation of Imperial Japanese Navy's Aircraft Carrier Kaga. IJN Katuragi was later refloated and used as a transport to repatriate Japanese prisoners and evacuate small isolated garrisons of the Pacific, well into 1946. IJN Junyo, like his twin, saw the installation of forty 25mm AA guns in 1943, and in June 1944, 76. -Kyushu K9W1 Momiji (1942) biplane trainer based on the Bücker Bu-131, 339 built –Kyushu K11W1 Shiragiku (1942) monoplane advanced operations trainer, 798 built –Nakajima C6N Saiun “Myrt” (1943) Navy Carrier Reconnaissance Plane, the fastest built by Japan, 463 built. None was started. The IJN also tested the Dewoitine D.510J in 1936, the Canadian Car & Foundry AXG1 in 1938, Heinkel A7He1 (12), Seversky A8V (20) the same year, the American Douglas HXD and Fairchild LXF1, and used 20 Seversky A8V recce monoplanes. The bow was raised by a level in 1940. IJN Soryu took part in the campaign in China when it entered service, and then went on squadrons exercises until December 1941, when her group was sent to Pearl Harbor with the Kido Butai (2nd division). FUJMI IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY 1/350 AIRCRAFT CARRIER ZUIKAKU: Condition: New. In 1912, the Royal Navy had established its own flying branch, the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). These large aircraft carriers were ordered in 1941 as part of the mobilization plan. She was also designed to carry 12 mini type A attack submarines. Displacement: 62,000 t. standard -71 890 t. Full Load Dimensions: 266 m long, 36.3 m wide, 10.3 m draft Machinery: 4 propellers, 4 turbines, 12 boilers, 150,000 hp. She was soon equipped with a hangar, AA and specific equipment, back into service under the name of Taiyo with her original machinery. Top speed: 34.3 knots Armor: 90 mm Belt, 56-150 mm magazine decks, 25 mm engine decks Armament: 12 x 127 AA, 31 x 25 mm AA, 73 aircraft Crew: 1,101. Conventional aircraft could fly off from her deck but not land, until July 1944 when a KX arresting gear was fitted. The AA was increased in 1936 with four 25 mm AA, then 22 in 1942 plus twenty four 13.2 mm. Kashiwara and Izumo Maru were requisitioned in 1940, and converted first into armed transports and then in drydock for conversion as carriers. A new configuration for the boiler rooms was tested on them, and their bridge was moved aside to clear of the flying deck while tilting the funnel to the side, a configuration closer to what was done on Allied carriers which was highly successful. Displacement: 17,500 t. standard -20 586 t. Full Load Dimensions: 189.36 m long, 25.60 m wide, 8.18 m draft Machinery: 2 steam turbines, 4 boilers, 26,000 hp. Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force The Japanese navy’s first aircraft carrier in 75 years is almost ready to deploy. The Amagi and Akagi were two battle cruisers of the class of the same name, ordered in 1917 and whose construction was well completed when the Washington Treaty came into effect in 1921. Her aviation fuel stores were blasted, and she capsized and sank just 15 minutes after air raid started, with only 178 surviving. After the American attack annihilates the three aircraft carriers, iryu managed to get off without damage. At that time, the ship was presented in a very different aspect from that which it will be known in 1941: it had a landing deck only at the rear, the front being reserved for two superimposed tracks of takeoff. In 1921, she was was launched and put into service in 1922, earlier than HMS Furious. In June 1942, Midway’s losses prompted the high command to convert her into an aircraft carrier. Akagi in 1928 IJN Akagi in 1941, top and profile, Displacement: 46,500 t. standard – 42,750 t. Full Load Dimensions: 260.7 m long, 31.5 m wide, 8.7 m draft (full load) Propulsion: 4 propellers, 4 steam turbines, 19 Kampon boilers, 133,000 hp, Maximum speed 31.2 knots Armor: Maximum (belt) 250 mm, bridges 50 mm, stores with ammunition 100 mm. At that stage, torpedoes were still preferred. At the time, they were no experience pilots to gave them and aviaton fasoline was already in shot supply. On 5 September, they bombed the Bismarck battery, a key point on Tsingtao’s fortifications. Their AA varied during their service, between six and eight 127 mm and six 120 mm for Taiyo, with initially eight 25 mm, then 24 on Taiyo and Unyo, and 22 plus 5 heavy 13 mm machine guns for IJN Chuyo in 1943. Instead planes were stored below the flight deck, on the main deck. Of course, depending of the carriers themselves, these units had different capabilities. Top speed: 27 knots Armour: Belt 208, flight deck 80, hangar deck 180 Armament: 16 guns 127, 145 guns 25 mm AA, 12 LR (28 R), 47 aircraft Crew: 2,400. The Washington Naval Treaty allowed Japan a certain tonnage by class to the IJN, and the Chitose-class were seaplane tenders, but designed for their quick conversion to aircraft carriers from the start, knowing in case of war, these limits would be gone. Only these three vessels had an operational life, however short. In addition to a large AA artillery, Ibuki innovated with six anti-aircraft rocket launchers (168 in all) that should have erected a steel barrier impassable to US aviation. Her 100 mm dual-purpose turrets were the new model placed on Akizuki super-destroyers. IJN Shoho, formerly Tsurugisaki, was accepted into service in January 1942. Each new design was first given an experimental Shi number, based upon the current Japanese imperial year of reign. In addition, her prow, too low, plowed heavily and the bridge became a breakwater, denying the crew any visibility in between waves. He capsized and sank the next day, his crew having delayed the inevitable for more than 33 hours. Displacement: 17,830 t. standard -19 700 t. Full Load Dimensions: 180.2 m long, 22.5 m wide, 7.8 m draft Machinery: 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 4 boilers, 25,200 hp. Her role was to provide an air cover during amphibious and landing operations but she became an aircraft ferry, until 18 November 1943 when she was sailing with the torpedo boat Tomozuru, off the entrance to Manila. His aircraft made two assaults before Admiral Yamamoto decided to cancel the third, believing that the surprise effect no longer played in their favor. Displacement: 13,600 t. standard -16 496 t. Full Load Dimensions: 166.55 m long, 21.90 m wide, 8.04 m draft Machinery: 2 steam turbines, 4 boilers, 52,000 hp. There were seven American aircraft carriers at the beginning of hostilities, only three operating in the Pacific; and eight British aircraft carriers, of which a single one operated in the Indian Ocean. One example is the Imperial Japanese Navy’s June 30, 1942, plan for aircraft carrier construction. In addition, internal protections were reinforced and the bow raised from a level to ensure better seakeeping. The Mitsubishi Zero so started its career as Navy Experimental 12-Shi Carrier Fighter. The Akagi was taken over for reconstruction between 1923 and 1927. IJN Hosho off Shanghai in 1937. On the other hand, the hull was considerably longer and wider, and in the end, this ship proved to be able to contain a fleet of 84 aircraft (of which 53 were actually operational at all time), same as Shokaku. Required fields are marked *. She was badly damaged twice but survived, was repaired and in 1945 she was in home waters, in Kure. In 1937 she deployed six Type 95 Kawanishi E8N2 “Dave” two-seat float reconnaissance biplanes, and received the same year two 80-mm (3.15-inch) guns and about twenty 20-mm AA guns. China’s nearly continuous air and sea provocations around the disputed Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu in China), together with the general “lack of transparency surrounding [China’s] defense policy and military power,” have deeply concerned Japan, … This was pushed by naval aviators, arguing they needed to win the aerial engagement to clear space over the opposing fleets before final surface battle, notably to elminate the enemy’s own spotters. Repaired, she was able after armistice, to repatriate Japanese POWs and troops and was BU in 1947. IJN Shinano’s AA peaked with 145 25-mm guns and 12 rocket launchers. Japanese seaplane carrier/tender Chiyoda in 1938, full speed. She had no catapult, while her narrow deck served as a runway for only a few planes, stored in the hangar below. She took part in the invasions of Shanghai, Malaya and Java. IJN Haguro and IJN Nachi’s Nakajima E8N (Type 95) “Nate” recce plane – colorized bi Iroo Toko Jr. –Yokosho Rogou Kougata (1918), 218 built, retired 1928 –Yokosuka K1Y (1925) Main trainer/spotted floatplane of the Navy, 104 built, retired 1941 –Hiro H1H (1925) recce and ASW patrol seaplane, 60 built, retired 1938 -Aichi Type 15-Ko Mi-go (1925), semi-experimental seaplane, 4-5 built –Yokosuka E1Y (1926): Main recce floatplane, 320 built, retired 1938 -Aichi Navy Type 2 (1928), experimental floatplane –Nakajima E2N (1929): 80 built, retired in the late 1930s –Yokosuka E6Y (1929), submarine-based recce floatplane, 10 built, retired 1943 –Yokosuka K4Y (1930), trainer/recce floatplane, 211 built, retired 1940s. The rather extraordinary losses suffered by Japan because of US submersibles forced the admiralty to apply recipes of their enemies to face the same danger, and recommended solutions included the use of cheap escorts vessels, submarine hunters, and escort aircraft carriers. Displacement: 17,300 t. standard -21 900 t. Full Load Dimensions: 227.40 m long, 22.32 m wide, 7.84 m draft Machines: 4 steam turbines, 8 boilers, 153,000 hp. Indeed, she was not only at the same time a Japanese landing craft depot ship, and escort aircraft carrier and a autogyro carrier, so an ancestor of modern helicopter carriers. That’s why the Japanese could not replicate the USN conversion of the Saratoga class. In September 1942 she was at Kavieng (Solomon) and conducted many Tokyo Express transport runs to Guadalcanal. Ro-Go Ko-gata operating from Hosho. In February 1942, work started in Kure, and she was completed in December 1943. In addition to spotting exercises, plnes were to lay smoke screens to protect their own, and provided air defence for the fleet as better fighters were available. All 464 built were used by the Navy. She was armed by six 14 cm/50 3rd Year Type naval guns in three turrets and 24 Type 96 25 mm AA guns in eight triple mounts and the modification to carry 12 Type A Kō-hyōteki-class submarines, was paid by having only twelve aircraft alongside. Taiho was unusual for a Japanese carrier when she first launched on April 7, 1943, as she was the first of the Imperial Japanese Navy’s flattops to feature an armored flight deck. The group, including the aircraft carrier Queen Elizabeth, is expected to conduct joint exercises with the U.S. military and Japan's Self-Defense Forces during its stay in areas including off the Nansei Islands chain in southwestern Japan, the sources said. Plans were reworked many times, and the laying of the Taiho keel took place in Kawasaki on July 10, 1941. -In 1939 also first flew the Nakajima LXD-1, transport four-engined prototype. It was loaded with 60 aircraft, and measured 238 meters long and 29.60 wide with 7.9 meters of draft and 33,160 tons tested. The result was not long in coming: Launched in April 1931 and completed in May 1933, IJN Ruyjo was dangerously unstable, taking an uncontrollable roll as she was overloaded with high metacentric point. The commission was to promote aviation technology and training and at first centrated on non-rigid airships, before swapping to aircraft. The shift away from battleships as main target to the aircraft carriers was apparent in naval games by the mid-1930s, notably with a new generation of precision tools, the dive-bombers, for which Japan was ready to be invested in intensive training. She was damaged near Java in 1943 and towed for repairs in Singapore, scuttled and BU in 1947. From its creation, this unit was under command of Vice Admiral Chūichi Nagumo, and chief of staff Rear Admiral Ryūnosuke Kusaka. In December 1941, just when attacking Pearl Harbor, the 1st Air fleet was the world’s largest fleet of aircraft carriers, comprising three divisions (see later). So when the British admiralty started the HMS Hermes on plans in 1917, laid down specifically as an aircraft carrier, Japan was not long to follow. Two - Hyūga and Ise - were built; upon completion the class were the largest ships built for the Japanese navy since the Second World War. Top speed: 22 knots Armament: 6 x 127 mm (2 × 3) guns, 12 x 25 mm AA guns, 24 seaplanes Crew: 800. As in other navies, it was seen as a support for the main battle fleet, not an independent striking weapon. 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